Malaysian Official: Tor-Tor Dance Originates in Indonesia, But…

Malaysia’s culture minister, Rais Yatim, said on Thursday that the recently disputed Tor-Tor folk dance did originate in Indonesia, but added that some Malaysians felt a sense of ownership over the dance too, as they shared similar cultural roots with Indonesians.

Rais admitted that the Tor-Tor dance belonged to the Mandailing ethnic group, which is native to Indonesia’s North Sumatra province.

Tor Tor Dance

Tor-Tor Dance

He added, however, that some Malaysians were also descendants of Mandailing people who began arriving to Malaysia in the 1920s, leading to a feeling of kinship with the Mandailing cultural heritage, including the Tor-Tor dance.

“It is the Mandailing people [in Malaysia] who want the Malaysian government to recognize and register their arts. We hope Indonesians will consider this fact, instead of speculating that Malaysia is trying to swallow Indonesian arts,” Rais said on the sidelines of a meeting among Asian and European culture ministers in Yogyakarta on Thursday.

He admitted that the Malaysian government had indeed put the dance on Malaysia’s national heritage list in 2005 and used it in promotional tourism materials.

“But we really don’t mean to snatch away Indonesian traditional arts and claim them as our own. The Malaysian government only acknowledges the presence of the arts in our country and the need to protect them,” Rais said.

Malaysia’s reported efforts to promote the Tor-Tor and Gordang Sambilan drum performance — both with origins in Sumatra — as its own cultural heritage sparked protests in Jakarta in June, when a group torched Malaysia’s flag and threw stones at its embassy.

It was the latest in a series of disputes between neighboring Indonesia and Malaysia, whose citizens have often been involved in heated exchanges, especially online, over cultural claims as well as the treatment of Indonesian migrant workers in Malaysia, many of whom work as housemaids.

Where is Malaysia Located?

Where is malaysia? Malaysia is situated in Southeast Asia, bordered by Thailand in the north, Indonesia in the south, and the Philippines in the east. The country has an area of 329,758 square kilometers (127,320 square miles). Comparatively, the territory of Malaysia is slightly greater than that of the state of New Mexico, the fourth-largest state in the United States. The Federation of Malaysia consists of 13 states, and is divided into 2 parts: 11 states are located in Peninsular Malaysia (also called West Malaysia) and 2 comprise East Malaysia, which is situated on the island of Borneo (see map).

Peninsular and East Malaysia are separated by 640 kilometers (400 miles) of the South China Sea. Malaysia’s capital city, Kuala Lumpur, is located in southeast Peninsular Malaysia, just 300 kilometers (187 miles) from Singapore. However, a new capital, Putrajaya, is being developed outside the overcrowded metropolitan area as the new administrative center. The strategic importance of Malaysia is in its location along the Strait of Malacca, which is a major sea-route connecting the Far East to Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.

Tourism is becoming an increasingly important sector of Malaysia economy. Together with the retail sector, it provides employment for almost 1.57 million people, or around 17 percent of the labor force. Roughly 7.5 million tourists visited the country in 1999, contributing RM10 billion to the national economy. This makes tourism one of Malaysia’s top foreign exchange earners. According to the national authorities, the country has 1,426 hotels, the total room capacity of which almost doubled during the 1990s to about 110,000 in 2000. Most visitors have been from Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and Australia.

In order to develop tourism, Malaysia has promoted its diverse cultural environment, hosting a number of cultural festivals and performances. It has also publicized its rich natural heritage, which includes tropical forests, coral reefs, unspoiled mountain ranges, rivers, and national parks. The country offers tax-free bargain shopping and excellent service, with top-class hotels such as Sheraton, Hilton, Intercontinental, and other well-established international chains opening branches. It offers a wide variety of activities, from eco-friendly and adventure tourism to scuba diving and relaxed family holidays on the numerous Malaysian islands and beaches.

Additionally, Malaysia has signed visa-free regimes with most countries in Asia, the Americas, and Europe, enabling international tourists to travel to Malaysia without obtaining entry visas. In 1997, however, tourism suffered from the regional financial crisis and by the smog caused by several months of forest fires in Indonesia. The number of tourist arrivals declined significantly in 1997 and 1998; however, there was a strong recovery in arrivals in 1999 and 2000. ” Where is malaysia

Air Asia Malaysia – The no.1 Budget Airlines in Asia

Air Asia Malaysia – If there is one thing that a Malaysian can be proud of (among the many things of course – before my fellow Malaysians bash me) is the success of AirAsia for being the no. 1 budget airlines in Asia.

From a humble beginning slightly over a decade ago until now Air Asia Malaysia has come a long way and now it can aptly be called the no. 1 budget airlines in Asia. AirAsia wings have spread as far as the UK and Australia. For a Malaysian to achieve such a success almost single-handedly, without much interference from the government, it is a pure genius for the man behind the company – Tony Fernandez who comes from an entertainment business background started it all.

The success of Air Asia Malaysia probably comes from a combination of its unique ticketing system and its in-flight management system. AirAsia was the first company in Malaysia to introduce an on-line ticketing system. That alone is a killer strategy that has seen its rival MAS (Malaysia Airline System) sales gone spiralling down from year to year while AirAsia has consistently increase its sales altitude.

Another strategy implemented by Air Asia Malaysia is a no-frill travel approach which simply means no free in-flight meal served, no fixed seating, no refund for cancellation etc. This approach has somehow works well for Air Asia Malaysia, promotional tickets are snapped off almost immediately after they are released as there is almost no risk even in the event of no show as the money involved is too small.

With a strong marketing team, Air Asia Malaysia will continue to dominate and lead the budget airlines in Asia which means there will always be cheap flights for Malaysians such as me.

For resources and news related to cheap flights to and from Malaysia and its surrounding region visit Malaysian Airlines Information

Malaysia Claim Sumatra

A Malaysian forum posting one article which mentions that the island of Sumatra should belong to Malaysia. In postingannya mentioned, based on the history of the Dutch era, the Indonesian island should become part of the country of Malaysia.

“Kingdom of Johor victorious develop its economy and become the most important political power in accordance with its location on the east-west trade among the examined. In an age glories of Johor, this country has become a big empayar which sebahagian inherited colonial powers subjugated Melaka. Empayar Johor termasuklah get to Terengganu in Peninsular , Riau Islands sebahagian-Ling and the east coast of Sumatra, “wrote the post, which quotes Legal, Thursday (01/27/2011).

Posts written by such account Mohd Am, reveal the history of the kingdom of Johor, now a name of one city in Malaysia, as a great empire that its power from the River Muar, Singapore, up to the Riau Islands, and part of the East coast of Sumatra.

“Based on this historical fact is clear that the Riau-Ling And most of Sumatra that is Colonial Malaysia namely Johor .. now ..,” he claims.

Judging from the history of that, some areas of Sumatra and Riau Islands should belong to Malaysia. But since the agreement between Britain and the Netherlands, two countries that once colonized Indonesia and Malaysia would eliminate the restriction area.

“So it must return to the Sumatran origin specifically included in the Malaysian province of Johor, but the agreements have solved the British-Dutch colony areas namely Johor-Riau Lingga And most of Sumatra.” cover these postings.

Based on the observation Legal, posting entitled ‘Sumatra belongs to Malaysia’ posted by an account named Mohd Am, which appear to come from the area of Kuching on December 12, 2010. (source: IdHacker)

Malaysia Claim Sumatra

AFF warns PSSI after ticket chaos

Indonesian Football Association (PSSI) chairman Nurdin Halid admitted Sunday that he had received a warning from the Asean Football Federation (AFF) that Jakarta will not hold the second leg of the AFF Cup finals should the ticket sale chaos continue.

“If security could not control the crowd to calmly buy tickets, Jakarta will not hold the second leg of AFF Cup finals,” he said, as quoted by TVOne.

Impatient hooligans broke into the Gelora Bung Karno stadium following uncertainty over ticket sales, destroying fences and other stadium belongings. One man was reportedly injured.

Nurdin blamed hooligans for failing to behave properly when they lined up to buy tickets.

He said he had asked the National Police and the City Police to help PSSI secure the ticket sales process as well as the AFF Cup final’s second game.

Malaysia Flight : Enjoy 80% Malaysia Airlines Discount with MasterCard

Malaysia Flight – MasterCard Premium cardholders can enjoy 80% off on their second air ticket when they purchase a full fare ticket on First or Business Class with Malaysia Airlines.
From now ’til 31 December 2010, enjoy this offer when you plan a trip to Sydney on First Class at RM3157, RM5806 to Johannesburg and RM7000 to London. You could also travel to Bali on Business Class with fares starting from RM864, RM1735 to Maldives, RM1860 to Dubai and RM2366 to both Osaka as well as Narita.

These fares are available for purchase at Malaysia Airlines’ ticket offices, Call Centre and appointed travel agents. They are not available online. Malaysia Airlines Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Dato’ Bernard Francis said, “We encourage MasterCard cardholders to take this opportunity to plan their holiday. With this promotion, they can enjoy great savings on the second ticket.  He added, “We continuously aim to offer value in innovative ways and this collaboration is a demonstration of our commitment to our customers.

By offering great deals and world-class service, we look to enhance our customers’ experience in line with Malaysia Airlines’ focus on Serving Customers.” The promotion is available for flights from Kuala Lumpur to all destinations that serve First and Business Class. Applicable travel dates vary from destination to destination.

Preserving Malaysia’s architectural jewel

George Town, Malaysia (CNN) — There is a sublime beauty about Penang’s ruined buildings; suffused with melancholy, they sit like jilted lovers, neglected and brooding in the gathering undergrowth. Each relays an echo from the past, as its story crumbles and fades.

I’m slightly obsessed with ruins, and that makes Penang a particularly enchanting destination for me. But the number of house-wrecks in this former British colonial trading post is dwindling as a massive regeneration is underway.

Two years ago part of the capital, George Town, won UNESCO World Heritage Status, putting it on a par with Angkor Watt, the Taj Mahal and the Egyptian Pyramids.

Now the insidious plants that were slowly smothering neglected houses and government offices are being prized from their victims.

Many here credit the 2008 UNESCO listing to one man: Laurence Loh. His remarkable work to save an exquisite Chinese merchant house, the Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion, has become a paragon of excellence for Asian conservation.

With a lightness of touch that celebrates the imperfections of an old building, he has kick-started a restoration revolution in Penang.

“When I took over this project my main vision was to create a benchmark project for the whole of Penang and Malaysia. Obviously this house has all the ingredients to create a project of that impact,” he told CNN.

“The success of the project even surprised me, because if you look around the whole of the area, you will find that almost every building in the vicinity has been restored and when we first took this over none of the buildings were in a very good shape. It’s a very bottom-up area regeneration.”

The story of Loh’s relationship with the Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion is fascinating.

He is an architect by profession, more used to building ultra modern condos and houses. But he’d always been aware of the mansion, sitting as it does at the back of his old school.

During his childhood, it had fallen into severe disrepair and Loh assumed it was a dilapidated temple, because of the extensive use of intricate Chinese tiles on the gable ends; 34 families were tenants in the cluttered rooms that used to be so grand.

Developer friends of Loh’s had eyed the plot, thinking of demolishing the old house and building a skyscraper. But thankfully, they were deterred by the problems of evicting so many sitting tenants.

It was only on the death of the last son of the man that built this magnificent confection, that it was released from a restrictive family trust in 1989. Loh was tipped off that the sale was imminent and managed to befriend a sympathetic agent, to close the deal.

He paid about $6.4 million, but that was just the beginning of the outlay. It needed urgent work to replace rotting floors and joists, and the project began in 1992. What followed was a labor of love that spanned three years.

During the course of the works, Loh was careful to preserve the “spirit” of the building.

One personality dominates its past, the man that lavished so much money to build it, Cheong Fatt Tze.

He was one of the richest men in Asia when he died in 1916, having transformed himself from a penniless immigrant water-carrier in Indonesia, to an entrepreneur and politician with vast business interests, including gold mines, opium plantations, and even China’s first vineyard.

He owned property across Asia, but Loh thinks the house in Penang must have been special, for it was here that he installed his favorite wife, the seventh of eight women that he married during his eventful life.

A photo of Cheong Fatt Tze and his wife, damaged by termites, to give it a charming patina, stare out from the back of the central courtyard, almost as if they are icons in an orthodox church, awaiting veneration.

Now the Mansion is part boutique guesthouse, part museum, but is also in the vanguard of heritage conservation in Penang. Loh is now involved with helping to save other historic buildings here. One project, involves converting a row of seven terraced houses into a small hotel.

Australian Karl Steinberg is behind the project and says the Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion was a revelation, showing just what could be achieved with sensitivity and imagination.

“Laurence is the visionary, Laurence is the leader he’s so far down the track we are trying to follow in his wake… Laurence has set a whole new level of conservation,” Steinberg told CNN.

But Laurence is also keen that Penang shouldn’t be turned into a museum theme park. He thinks the UNESCO listing will help preserve not only the architectural treasures of Penang, but also its culture richness, trades, cultures and communities that are fast disappearing elsewhere.

Loh also thinks Penang’s listing can be a force for political change.

“The real thrust of why I pushed for Penang to be a World Heritage Site is because it brings in a new paradigm of management. You are obliged to, for example, to be involved in public consultation. Public involvement is encouraged, public empowerment is encouraged.”

After years of decline, suddenly Penang is gripped with new vitality, the sort of energy that would have perhaps even spread a smile across the impassive face of Cheong Fatt Tze himself.

Malays in Singapore

As Singapore is a multi-racial country, there are many races living here and one of races is Malay. Initially, the people in Singapore (then known as Temasek) was mostly Malay, where the people were relying on the fishing industry for survival. However it becomes  a multi-racial country when Sir Stamford Raffles ‘opened’ Singapore to the world and transformed it to one the busiest  trading port for shipping industry in the world. There is no turning-back since for the development in the various industries here.

As Singapore became a trading port, more and more people of various races and ethic groups from other countries, especially the South East Asia regions, came here to work and some of them settled here. They brought along their custom, culture and life styles.  Living harmoniously, they started to learn and adapt to each other traits.

Malays in Singapore (Malay: Orang Melayu Singapura), while being the people indigenous to Singapore, now make up just 14% of the country’s population, as based on the broader definition of a “Malay race” rather than the more specific “Malay ethnic group”. This is due to the influx of Chinese immigrants, who flocked to Singapore throughout the past 200 years. The result is that the Chinese are now the majority ethnic group in Singapore, making up around 75% of the country’s population.

Batam Hotels – The Island Info For Vacationers

Batam Island is part of Indonesia, and is located about 40 km south of Singapore. There are several Batam hotels and resorts on the island, as well as plenty of tourist attractions, 7 international golf courses, shopping centers and restaurants, and a few nice beaches for swimming or taking the kids to.


Most of the attractions that Batam Island has to offer to its visitors include fine beach resorts, natural wilderness, breathtaking landscape and exotic nightlife. Apart from the typical luxury, however, there exist several places that are among the landmarks of the island and are worth visiting.

  • Maha Vihara Duta Maitreya Buddhist Temple is a major attraction in Batam as being one of the biggest Buddhist temples in South-East Asia. Located in Batam Centre the temple hosts one statue of Buddha as well as two other statues of the Goddess of Mercy. There is a souvenir shop and a restaurant within the temple’s district.
  • Vihara Buddhi Bhakti Temple is a typical Chinese temple in the town of Nagoya. At present it is used by the locals for their daily prayers and religious rituals.
  • Waterfront City is among the nicest resort areas on Batam Island. It is situated on the west coast and it mainly attracts visitors from Singapore. The resort is famous not only for its beaches but also for the variety of sports and water sports that are available there, including cable water skiing, Step 1 Go Karts and many others. Most of the hotels offer spa treatment and massages that continue to astonish their guests.
  • Vietnamese Refugee Village can be visited in Pulau Galang. It was the home to many Vietnamese refugees who escaped from their county between 1972 and 2001 and sought shelter in Batam. The Indonesian government allowed them to live in the region, where they developed their own town by building a school, hospital, cemetery and temples. What is left of their lifestyle can still be seen almost intact in the area.
  • Jembatan Barelang Bridge is actually a chain of bridges that connect the 6 islands of Batam. The view from all of them is magnificent and many tourists visit the bridges exactly for the sake of aesthetics and in order to take some pictures of the nature on the island.


Reaching Batam is possible by either flying there from Jakarta or Malaysia, or by using the ferry services that provide transportation from Singapore or Malaysia.

  • Hang Nadim International Airport is an airport located at the east side of the island and serves mainly domestic flights to and from other Indonesian destinations. The airport is only 30 minutes drive from Nagoya, the capital of the island. The easiest way to get to the city centre is by taking a taxi. Taxis from the airport are not metered but the drivers have a list of destinations for fixed prices.
  • Penguin Ferry and Batam Fast are the most frequent ferry companies that operate between Singapore and Batam every hour for a price of $ 30 and additional 3 dollars for insurances. There are five ferry terminals in Batam, the major one of which is Batam Centre. The journey takes about 45 minutes. Upon arrival you may be confronted with taxi drivers trying to offer you a ride to the city centre. Bargain the price before you agree to it.


Several means of transportation are available in Batam:

  • The local buses operate in fixed directions and can be stopped on the street as a taxi. Make sure that the bus is going into your direction before you take it.
  • Damri buses are the cheapest way of getting around, though unreliable from a frequency point of view. Fares start at Rp.1000.
  • Taxis are metered but you should negotiate the price in advance because most drivers in Batam don’t use the meter. Unless you tell the driver you don’t want to share the cab, he will pick up other passengers. Prices for a shared taxi vary from Rp. 8000 to Rp. 10,000. It is also possible to hire the car for the whole day. Prices: around Rp.150,000 to Rp. 200,000 per day.
  • Ojek is another cheap means of transport, namely a motorcycle taxi. Bargain the price before you get on. It is usually around Rp. 3000 Rp. 6000 for short distances.


The settlement history of Batam as well as that of its adjacent islands goes back to 231 A.D. as some Chinese chronicles state. The region has been under the influence of different kingdoms, beginning with the Malacca Kingdom from the 13th century. Later, in 1824 the Dutch and the English split the area and ruled it until it became under the power of the Riau Lingga Kingdom. The trajectory of the Batam history absolutely changed its way when in 1969 the island became a base for the oil exploration of a state-owned oil company. Two years later it was designated an industrial area and since the Batam Authority was formed in 1975, it has continually grown into a duty-free zone with expanding industrial business and great seafood for its visitors.

If you would like more information about Batam Island, please visit us

Terry Sandford

Malacca State

Malacca (Malay: Melaka, dubbed as The Historical State or Negeri Bersejarah amongst locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south. The state’s capital is Malacca Town. This historical city centre has been listed as a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO since 7 July 2008.

Although Malacca was once one of the oldest Malay sultanates, the state has no Sultan today. Instead, the head of state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor.


The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,650-km2. or 0.5 percent of the whole area of Malaysia. The state is divided into 3 districts, that is Central Melaka (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²). Malacca is located on the southwestern coast of Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the West coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commanding a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital Malacca Town is strategically located between the two national capitals (of Malaysia and Singapore respectively) and is linked with excellent roads and highways. Malacca is yet to have its own train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilan is easily accessible. It has a domestic airport terminal located in Batu Berendam.

The offshore Pulau Besar, Pulau Upeh and Tanjung Tuan are also parts of Malacca.


Canals in Malacca
Malacca has a population of 759,000 as of 2007, being composed of:
* Malays: 57%;
* Chinese: 32%, including the Peranakan community;
* Indians, including the Chitty people: a sizeable minority;
* Kristang, people with partial Portuguese ancestry: a small community.
* Dutch Eurasians, Eurasians with Dutch ancestry: a minority within the Malacca Eurasian community.

Major Malacca towns are Malacca Town, Alor Gajah, Masjid Tanah, Jasin, Merlimau, Batu Berendam and Ayer Keroh.


1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca
1854 map of the “British Territory of Malacca”
[edit] Sultanate of Malacca
Main article: Malacca Sultanate

Prior to the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a simple fishing village inhabited by local Malays. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, a Srivijayan prince of Palembang who fled Sumatra following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca c. 1400 where he found a good port accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.[1]

According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a gray tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on the very place that he was sitting. He named it ‘Melaka’ after the tree under which he had taken shelter. Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name ‘Malacca’ from the Tamil word ‘mallakka’ which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration. Parameswara converted to Islam in 1414 and changed his name to ‘Raja Iskandar Shah’. In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut) the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.[1] Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara, occurred in the vicinity of the Bukit China (“Chinese Hill”) area, which was perceived as having excellent Feng Shui (geomancy) in Malacca then. Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424, and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.

The prosperity of Malacca attracted the invasion of the Siamese. Attempts in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was at that time a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks.

Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He’s fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, allegedly a princess of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina).(See Zheng He in Malacca). Scholars have disputed Hang Li Po’s status in China as because she was never recorded as a princess in the Chinese court of the Ming Dynasty in the Ming Chronicles. At the time of the arrival of the Sultan’s envoy, the reigning Ming Emperor was Jingtai Emperor. Records of his reign was expunged following the ascension of Tianshun in 1457. It is likely that if she were a princess in the Ming court, records of her might not exist. In many historical text, she was said to have been a princess in the court of the Yongle Emperor(1402-1424).

A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.

During its prime Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai’s southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java which was in decline as Malacca was rising. Malacca was also central in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago.

European colonization

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[2] They conquered the city on August 24, 1511. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). “In order to appease the King of Ayudhya” (Siam, whom had always intended in invading Malacca if not due to the latter’s good relationship with the Ming Emperor, China) “the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi.” in 1511.Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died two years later.

It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centred around it. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties.[3] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.

The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641 the Dutch defeated the Portuguese to capture Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1795 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.
Stadthuys Square

Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became Malaysia.

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